The Notebook

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19 February 2021 – The Royal Fern Family (Osmundaceae) includes the royal fern, the cinnamon fern and the interrupted fern. They are the oldest fern families, and related to all other extant ferns. Details in the article

This is the cinnamon fern (Osmundastrum cinnamomeum) named for the cinnamon brown color of the fertile frond, which is in the center of the sterile fronds and holds the sporangia that produce spores from which the sexual gametes arise.

22 January 2021 – The Bird’s Nest Fungus has nothing to do with birds or nests. The eggs are clusters of spores called peridioles that are splashed out by raindrops. More here

21 December 2020 – The first day of winter, anticipating the ultimate spring and summer of flowers, birds and berries like pokeweed, an edible and poisonous plant. More here

Pokeweed berries garishly compete for birds to spread their seeds

27 November 2020 (Green Friday)Tiger Beetles are frequently seen scurrying underfoot along the trail. They move so fast that they have to stop occasionally to see where they are going. So why are they bright green? More on this subject here

1 September 2020 – The Snapping Turtle is nothing to fear unless you have chelonaphobia – or perhaps if you are a University of Maryland fan – more here


Snapping Turtle West Virginia 200716
Snapping Turtles cross roads to get to nesting sites, like this one in western Virginia











 Contact Information:           William Needham – Needham82@aol.